Planes and axes of movement

There are three basic planes and joints in anatomy. All movements are defined according to these axes and planes.

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1.Sagittal axis: It is the line that runs parallel to the ground from front to back. The axis is perpendicular to the frontal plane.
2.Vertical axis: It is parallel to the gravitational line. The axis is in the transverse plane.
3.Transverse axis: It is the line parallel to the ground extending from right to left or left to right. The axis is in the sagittal plane.


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1.Sagittal plane: It is the plane perpendicular to the ground, which divides the body into two parts as right-left from the middle of the body.
2.Transverse (horizontal) plane: It is the plane that cuts the body transversely, divides it into upper and lower parts and is parallel to the ground.
3.Frontal (coronal) plane: It is the plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts and is perpendicular to the ground.

A) Movements on the sagittal axis and frontal plane

3.Lateral flexion

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B) Movements on the transverse axis and sagittal plane


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C) Movements on the vertical axis and transverse plane

1.Internal rotation
2.External rotation

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