The locomotor system gives shape to our body. There are three subheadings in the movement system, these are bones, joints and muscles. We will examine bones in this article.

Bone is hard structures made of osseous tissue, that is, bone tissue. There are 206 bones in various types in our body. These bones have certain functions in our body. For example, they protect and support the internal organs, attach to the muscles that provide movement, and provide the development of blood cells, which we call hemopoiesis. Bones are made up of 2 types of bone, spongy and compact. Compact bone is flatter, continuous and hard, therefore it has less viscoelastic property and is resistant to tensions. Spongy bone, on the other hand, has a spongy structure against compact bone and has high viscoelastic properties against elongation and stretching. The bones according to their shapes are long (in the arms and legs), short (our carpal bones in the hand and tarsal bones in the foot), flat (ilium scapula), sesamoid (patella) and irregular (face and vertebrae) are divided into six.

What are the upper bones?


There is a protrusion called the spina scapula on the back side of the rib cage.


Collarbone. It is the first bone that forms in our body and can be broken easily. It has horizontal extension and is easy to palpate starting from the acromion level.


Arm bone. It has a typical long bone structure. Large and small tubercles on the upper side of the bone, tuberositas deltoidea, which is the attachment site of the deltoid muscle, on the lower side, fossa coronoidea and fossa radialis, which will articulate with the forearm; lateral and extensor muscles, which are the origin of the flexor and extensor muscles. There are structures called medial epicondyles.


It is located on the lateral forearm. It has the caput radii on the upper side and the proc.styloideus on the lower side.


Located on the medial side of the forearm, it is longer compared to the radius. On the upper side, there are 2 important structures that will articulate with the humerus, these are olecronon and proc.koronoideus. On the lower side, there is a structure called proc.styloideus, just like the radius.

-Carpal Bones:

Wrist bones. They are located in the proximal and distal order and consist of 8 bones. In the proximal order, from the inside out; psiform, triquetrum, lunatum and scaphoideum.In the distal row from inside to outside; hamatum, capitatum, trapezoideum, trapezium.

-Metacarpal bones:

Hand metacarpal bones.


Hand finger bones.

What are the lower bones?


Hip bone. It is in the form of an irregular bone and consists of 3 separate parts; these are the ilium ischii and the pubis. At the junction of these three bones, there is the acetabulum, which articulates with the femur. In the ilium, the crista iliaca (the place where the basin measurement is made) and the SIAS (spina iliaca anterior superior ) is found. The pubis is known as the roof, while the ischii has the tuber ischiadicum formation, which is the origin of the hamstring muscles.


Thigh bone. On its upper side, the caput femoris articulates with the hip. In the trochanter major and minor structures, the major is more external than the minor. In the middle part, tuberositas glutea, which is the insertion of the gluteus maximus muscle, and the linea aspera, which extends in the form of an x and is located on the posterior surface of the femur. In the lower part are the lateral and medial condyles.


Knee cap bone. It is the largest sesamoid bone.


There is a bulge called tuberositas tibia which we can easily palpate on the upper part. There is a medial malleolus on the lower part.


It has the caput fibula at the top and the lateral malleolus at the bottom.

-Tarsal bones:

Ankle bones. They are arranged in 2 rows, in the back row; talus and calcaneus in the anterior row; navicula, cuneiform (3 pieces) and cuboid bones. (The foot bones form the lateral and medial longitudinal arch. When this arch is disrupted, anomalies such as pes planus and cavus occur frequently.)

-Metatarsal bones:

The metatarsal bones of the foot.


They are found in the finger bones as well as the toe bones.

Source: Yıldırım Mehmet, Human Anatomy, Print(Istanbul: Nobel Medicine Bookstore, 2017)

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