## Planes and axes of movement

There are three basic planes and joints in anatomy. All movements are defined according to these axes and planes.

## Axis

1.Sagittal axis: It is the line that runs parallel to the ground from front to back. The axis is perpendicular to the frontal plane.
2.Vertical axis: It is parallel to the gravitational line. The axis is in the transverse plane.
3.Transverse axis: It is the line parallel to the ground extending from right to left or left to right. The axis is in the sagittal plane.

## Planes

1.Sagittal plane: It is the plane perpendicular to the ground, which divides the body into two parts as right-left from the middle of the body.
2.Transverse (horizontal) plane: It is the plane that cuts the body transversely, divides it into upper and lower parts and is parallel to the ground.
3.Frontal (coronal) plane: It is the plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts and is perpendicular to the ground.

## A) Movements on the sagittal axis and frontal plane

1.Abduction
3.Lateral flexion

1.Flexion
2.Extension

## C) Movements on the vertical axis and transverse plane

1.Internal rotation
2.External rotation